June 29, 2013

Colombia, 1775 - 1790: Commodity Prices



 
Contemporary counterfeit, gilt Platinum: 26.8 g. 

 
Contemporary counterfeit, gilt Platinum: 26.96 g.
 









Contemporary counterfeit, gilt Platinum: 26.83 g.
 













Where 1 fanega of cacao is estimated at 111.14 lbs avd (50.41 kg):

c. ?:  1 kg. Ecudorian cacao =  S$ 0.



 

June 26, 2013

Colombia, 1850 - 1875




Weights:

c.1854:  1 kg US Flour @ Chocó =  S$ 0.22






Citation: New Granada: Twenty Months in the Andes: With Maps and Illustrations;  Isaac F. Holton (1856) p.260




June 25, 2013

Colombia, 1825 -1850




http://books.google.com/books?id=j4EzAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA157&dq=arroba+colombia&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UCPXUZaFNvfH4AOLtoHgBw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=price%20&f=false



c.1822:
Reported in the early 1830s, Colombian Gold mines were "neglected in the more general search for platina" during the (early) 1820s.  Citing Cochrane (c.1824) elsewhere;

Citation: An Accompaniment to Mitchell's Map of the World, on Mercator's Projection...; Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1846) p.272
 

1825:

1825:  1 kg. US Flour @ =  S$ 0.72 -1.01/kg.



1825:  1 kg. (local) Beef @ Chocó (whols.)=  S$ 0.5435




Citation: An Encyclopaedia of Geography Vol 4, Hugh Murray (1834) p.1406
 

1837:  1 kg. (local) Beef @ Bogotá (whols.)=  S$ 0.08 - 0.09

1837:  1 kg. (local) Mutton @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.06
1837:  1 Fowl @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.01 - 0.15
1837:  1 Turkey @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.03 - 0.06
1837:  1 Liter Madeira @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 2.113
1837:  1 Liter brandy @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 1.8489
1837:  1 Liter English Porter @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.7042
1837:  1 kg. (local) Beef @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.1359
1837:  1 kg. (local) Mutton @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.1020
1837:  1 Dozen Eggs @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.1875
1837:  1 kg. Tea @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 6.5217
  
1837: 


Transport:






1837: 1 pair locally-made 'Wellington' boots = S$ 10.
1837: 1 pair locally-made poor-quality boots = S$ 2.







1822:  1 kg. Salt @ Zipaquira= S$ 0.065




Puerto Nare?

1837:  1 Dozen Eggs @ Nare (retail)=  S$ 0.25




 






Export Values, 1837:





1845: 
Where Wheat @ 13.5% moisture = 60 lbs. avd. = 27.2155 kg = $S 3.375, 
1845: 1 kg 'best wheat' @ Bogota = S$ 0.1240 (£ 0.0248)
1845: 1 lb avd. 'best wheat' @ Bogota = S$ 0.0565  (£ 0.0113)




c.1847? 
c. 1847:  1 kg. Rice @ Chocó  ~S$ 0.3478


c. 1847:  1 kg. Potatoes @ Chocó  S$ 0.4348



 


c.1850: Colombian Balsams







Bogota  to New York/Philadelphia: ~3,000 miles by sea & land routes
(2,510 miles)

 

Colombia, 1790-1825: Commodity/Inflation Indices

There were reportedly no price-currents in Caracas or Carthagena.




Local wages were reported lower a decade or so later (when a Colombian carguero earned about 0.8 - 0.93 pesos per day) Quintal weights varied greatly: an English quintal was 112 lbs avoirdupois or 50.8 kgs; the Spanish quintal was (4x 25x 0.4601) 46.01 kgs ; the Portuguese quintal (4x 32x 0.459kg) is 58.752 kgs; etc.
 
In 1801, the Price of a barrel of Philadelphia flour (196 lbs avd) was falling, from USD$ 10.40 > USD$ 6.50 per bbl; in Havana, the price of Philadelphia flour was $ 24. - $13.50/bbl.  So the Chocó
price @ S$64. - 90. (USD$ ) (S$ 0.3265 - 0.46 per lb. avd) was ~8.6x > 9.2x higher than the domestic US price.  (See Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World ...   Franklin W. Knight, Peggy K. Liss p.47)

Von Humboldt's ms. dated to 1809 or so, with c. 1806/7 data prior to the insurrection & eventual independence ('time of war') 1810-22.  So poor was general knowledge, von Humboldt's comment (c. 1801) on local prices for imported commodities was reproduced for decades thereafter.

1801: Cargueros earned 8-12 reals per day, or as little as 96-112 reals (S$ 12. - 14. ; £ 2.40 - 2.80) per fortnight journey (month) carrying almost 2 quintals

c.1796?:  1 kg. Imported (USA) Flour @ Chocó =  S$ 1.01
1801:  1 kg. Imported (USA) Flour @ Chocó =  S$ 0.72
1801:  US Flour at Bogotá S$ /kg.

Citation: Political essay on the kingdom of New Spain;  Alexander von Humboldt Vol 4, p.386

According to Cochrane (1823) "the post goes from Cartago to Ibague in four days." 
Cochrane's journey (Ibagué to Cartago) took 9 days, whereas von Humboldt called it '15, sometimes even 25 or 30 days.' If the Quindío Trail was ~60 kms?, Cochrane's party traveled ~6.7 km/day, twice as slow as the post.

Cochrane reported the travel from Cartago to Chocó as 20 days. 

Cochrane's journey from Ibagué to Carthagena took 87 days, nearly 3 months.  
  
Taddo to Carthagena was ~ 877 km; Carthagena to Jamaica was also ~877 km.



 In 1824, the post from Cartago to Ibagué was ~4 days/9 days reply, S$ 1./day. 

1801: Quindío Trail Post, 6.7 km/day = S$1. 

Citation: Travels through the interior provinces of Colombia; John Potter Hamilton (1824) 


1801: Quindío Trail Portage ~60 km = S$ 12. -14.
1801: Quindío Trail Portage/day = S$1. - 1.50
1801: Quindío Trail 1 km = S$ 0.20 - 0.23

According to von Humboldt, the weight typically carried by a carguero was 75-88 kgs ; extraordinarily 112.5 kgs (248 lbs avd.)  A barrel of US flour (196 lbs avd) carried Ibagué from Cartago would necessarily cost at least $14 more, for the labor.


 






9 months of 1802: Where 1 fanega of cacao is estimated at 111.14 lbs avd (50.41 kg), the Cadiz quintal 104 lbs avd. (47.17 kgs):

1802:  1 kg. South American Cotton =  S$ 0.9540
1802:  1 kg. South American Indigo=  S$ 5.5453
1802:  1 kg. South American Sugar =  S$ 0.3400
1802:  1 kg. South American Vanilla =  S$ 0.
1802:  1 kg. South American Cacao =  S$ 1.1902
1802:  1 kg. South American Coffee =  S$ 0.5762




c.1805:  1 kg. Colombian cacao, Cartagena export=  S$ 0.405

c.1805:  1 kg. Colombian Indigo, Cartagena export =  S$ 1.75
c.1805:  1 kg. Caracas Indigo, London Import =  S$ 4.307
 





c.1818: Gold price depressed in time of war.



1819:
Where the legua is presumed 4.179 km, the river portage was 1 km = S$ 0.1914




c.1820: Mollien citing an anonymous English author.

From the depot to Verras, the distance was 96.5 km; 'load' appears to be baggage of 5 arrobas or 127 lbs avd. (~57.5 kgs)

From Verras to Citara the distance was 64.37 km; by mule, presumably <2 days travel.

c. 1820: Daily Carguero Portage (~57.5 kgs) 13.78 km = S$ 1.7143
c. 1820: Daily Portage (~57.5 kgs) ~110 km = S$ 1.78/day




1824: 9 Day's Journey, Cartago to Ibagué :
77.1 kg/17o lbs avd. $16.*2 + 54.43 kg/120 lbs avd. $10.*2 + Portage $9 *14



The post from Bogotá to Ibagué was 3 days and thence to Cartago, 4 more days: 7 days journey, two weeks (twice as long) for a traveler. 

Citation: New Granada: Twenty Months in the Andes: With Maps and Illustrations;  Isaac F. Holton (1856) p.260





1805-1810: where the quintal is understood to be 101.418 lbs avd and 46 kgs.

c.1805: 

c.1805:  1 kg. Colombian coffee, Cartagena export=  S$ 0.2174
c.1805:  1 kg. Colombian cotton, Cartagena export=  S$ 0.4348 




c.1809: 1 Fat Ox @ Cauca = S$ 16.



Gold sold by locals to merchants at deeply discounted rates.


c.1815: Where '5 Sols' = £ 0.0104/ S$ 0.0361

1815:  1 Dozen Eggs or 1 Liter Milk @ Caracas =  S$ 0.0361




1818, London Price


1819:  1 kg. Imported (USA) Flour @ Chocó =  S$ 0.3824
1819:  1 kg. (local) Meat @ Chocó =  S$ 1.087
1819:  1 kg. (local) Bread @ Chocó =  S$ 1.087
1819:  1 Bottle Wine @ Chocó =  S$ 1.80 - 2.00

Citation: Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale, à l'intérieur de la côteferme (181) Jullien Mellet p.253


1819:  1 kg. Gold @ Chocó =  S$ 565. - 434.80
1819:  1 Troy Ounce Gold @ Chocó =  S$13.52 - 17.58

Citation: Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale, à l'intérieur de la côteferme (181) Jullien Mellet p.253


1822/3:  1 kg. (local) Flour @ Bogotá =  S$ 0.08
1822/3:  1 kg. US Flour @ Bogotá = S$
1822/3:  1 kg. (non-local) Sugar @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.2717
1822/3:  1 kg. (local) Meat @ Bogotá (retail)=  S$ 0.1522
 
Citation: Voyage dans la République de Colombia: en 1823, Volume 2;  Gaspard Théodore Comte de Mollien

 
Timana was ~166 km to Neiva, transport cost S$ 0.02/kg to Honda.
Neiva was 17 days travel to Bogotá, according to Mollien.

1823:  1 kg. (local) Cocoa @ Timaná=  S$ 0.24
1823:  1 kg. (non-local) Sugar @ Timaná (retail) =  S$ 0.2717
1823:  1 kg. (non-local) Salt @ Timaná (retail) =  S$ 0.2717
1823:  1 kg. (non-local) Flour ~ Neiva (retail) =  S$ 0.1280


1823: Santa Rosa to Socorro, 3 days' travel carrying 34.5 kgs. for S$ 5.

1823: Santa Rosa to Socorro Portage/day = S$1.67





 

1822/3:  1 kg. Sugar @ Carthagena (retail) =  S$ 1.087



1822:  1 kg. Avg Flour @ Bogotá = S$ 0.800
1822:  1 kg. Best Flour @ Bogotá ~ S$ 0.803

18231 kg. Avg Flour @ Bogotá ~ S$ 0.867
1823:  1 kg. Best Flour @ Bogotá = S$ 0.870

18221 kg. US Flour @ Carthagena = S$ 0.1125
(1823: Cartago - Carathagena Portage = S$ 0.3261)



Assuming a strong mule carries only 6 arrobas in the mountains, 250x = 22,970 kgs:

18231 kg. Cacao @ Maracaibo= S$ 0.1524



18221 kg. Salt @ Zipaquira= S$ 0.070
18231 kg. Salt @ Zipaquira= S$ 0.065
18241 kg. Salt @ Zipaquira= S$ 0.060

1822/3:


1824:
Citation: Travels Through the Interior Provinces of Colombia, Vo. 1; John Potter Hamilton



1823: Cartago - Buenaventura Portage = S$ 0.1739




1823/4: The portage cost of S$ 8./46 kg is

1823: Cartago - Buenaventura Portage = S$ 0.1739



At S$ 10./bbl (196 lbs avd.) a US barrel of Flour should cost $ 87. without profit.

1823: Cartago - Carathagena Portage = S$ 0.3261



Cochrane's estimate of 8 rials (S$1) at £ 0.20, and the libra is 0.46 kg.

The price of meat brought from Cartagena was 4.8x more expensive in Chocó than at Bogotá.  The cost of local pork was 3x more expensive in Chocó than at Bogotá. 

1823/4:  1 kg. Colombian Beef @ Bogotá (retail) =  S$ 0.1698
1823/4:  1 kg. Sugar @ Bogotá (retail) =  S$ 0.2944

1823/4:  1 kg. Beef @ Novitá (retail) =  S$ 0.8152


1822/3:  1 kg. Colombian coffee, retail =  S$ 0.5435

1823:



1823/4:  1 kg. Pork @ Novitá (retail) = S$0.1359
1823/4:  1 kg. Inferior Pork @ Juntas (retail) = S$0.4076
1823/4:  1 kg. Pork @ Bogotá (retail) S$0.1359
 




1823: Imported goods, @ Bogotá



May, 1824:  1 kg. Salt @ Bogotá (Whols.) = S$0.06



Generally speaking, a 'fat cow' appears to have 25 kg fat and 122 kgs of meat.

May/June, 1824:  1 kg. Beef @ Bogotá (Whols.) = S$0.



Summer/Fall, 1824:  1 kg. Beef @ Bogotá (Retail) = S$0.1359
Summer/Fall, 1824:  1 kg. Pok @ Bogotá (Retail) = S$0.1359



1824: English-manufactured cock spurs, $1.50 ea


1824: In the UK, the discount in 1835 on a better used model was -25%.  Imported piano-forte (Broadwood's 30.) in 1820 cost ~£240. with transport from England to Popayan (~8x more.) Presumably, the cost of alternate purchase &transport from Bogotá would exceeded S$ 250.-300.



1824:  Estimated Cost of a piano-forte in Bogotá, S$ 1,000.
 



Cartago:





1823/4:  1 kg. Pork @ Novitá (retail) = S$ ?
1823/4:  1 kg. Beef @ Novitá (retail) = S$0.8152

The price of Cundinamarca coffee was 4x more cheaper in Paime than at Bogotá (84 kms.)   


1823/4:  1 kg. Superior Coffee @ Paime = S$0.1359
1823/4:  1 kg. Inferior Coffee @ Bogotá (retail) = S$0.5435



1823/4:  1 kg. Colombian Coffee, Guaduas? =  S$ 0.2174
1823/4:  1 kg. Colombian Sugar, Guaduas? =  S$ 0.0652 - 0.087




1823/4:  Free Negroes at Chocó = S$0.75/day
 


Portage 6 miles/9.656 kms = S$1. ; 50 libras = S$ 4.

High 'Portage' : Where 1 arroba (12.5 kg) and the Spanish legua is 5.576 km, 2 leguas (11.15 km) for S$ 1. The cost of two men with 50 libra was S$ 2 + $4 = $ 6./day


1823/4:  (2 Man) Portage 25 kg per 1 km = S$ 0.5381

1823/4:  River Crossing at La Cabazera = S$0.2708



1823:
Where 3.5 quarts = 3.312 litres of milk in Barquisimeto, VZ cost S$ 0.0625

1823: 1 litre milk @Barquisimeto ~ S$ 0.02




1823: Straw-weaver child-labor cost, 8 reals per month (2 real per week).



1823: 

Citation: Letters Written from Colombia During a Journey from Caracas to Bogotá



1824:  1 kg. Colombian Tobacco, Ambellina =  S$ 0.2609 - 0.4308







English Imports: Prices fell by 2/3rds, from c.1818-1822 to February, 1824